简洁明了的UI交互手册[4]

31.Try Visual Hierarchy instead of dullness.

A good visual hierarchy can be used to separate out your important elements from the less important ones. A visual hierarchy results from varying such things as alignment, proximity, colour, tone, indentation, font size, element size, padding, spacing, etc. When these visual language elements are applied correctly, they can work together to direct and pause people’s attention within a page – improving general readability. A visual hierarchy can be said to generate friction and slows us down from skimming through the full page top to bottom – for the better that is. With a good visual hierarchy, although we might spend a bit more time on the page, the end result should be that we register more items and characteristics. Think of it as as road trip. You can take the highway and get to your destination quicker (bottom of page), or you can take the scenic route and remember more interesting things along the way. Give the eye a place to stop.

31.善于引导用户的视觉浏览线,而非单一布局

具有层次的设计可以将界面上重要的部分与不次要部分区分开来。要让界面层次分明,可以在这些方面做文章:对齐方式,间距,颜色,缩进,字体大小,元素尺寸等。当所有这些调整运用得适当时,可以提高整个界面的可读性。相比在一个很直白的界面上用户一眼就可以从上瞟到底的设计,这样分明的设计也可以让用户放慢速度来慢慢阅读。这样也使界面更有特色一些。就好比一次旅行,你可以乘坐高铁快速到达景区(从页面顶部瞟到底部),但你也可以慢行以欣赏沿途风光。所以层次分明的设计让眼睛有可以停留的地方,而不是对着空白单调的一个屏幕。

32.Try Grouping Related Items instead of disordering.

Grouping related items together is a basic way of increasing fundamental usability. Most of us tend to know that a knife and a fork, or open and save functions can typically be found more or less together. Related items are just meant to be placed in proximity of each other in order to respect a degree of logic and lower overall cognitive friction. Wasting time looking for stuff usually isn’t fun for people.

32.将相关的条目分组,不要杂乱无章的排列

将各个功能项分组合并起来可以提高程序的可用性。有点常识的人都知道刀子和叉子,或者打开文件和关闭文件是放在一起的。将功能相近的元素放在一起也符合逻辑,符合我们平时的认知。

33.Try Inline Validation instead of delaying errors.

When dealing with forms and errors, it’s usually better to try to detect if something isn’t correct and show it sooner rather than later. The famous interaction pattern highlighted here of course is inline validation. By showing an error message as it happens (say to the right of the input field), it can be corrected right then and there as it appears in context. On the other hand, when error messages are displayed later on (say after a submit), it forces people to do some additional cognitive work of having to recall what they were doing from a few steps back.

33.采用及时校验而不是到最后才提示错误

在处理表单时,最好立即检测出用户所填写内容是否符合要求然后给出验证消息。这样错误一出现能就能得到改正。相反,提交后再检查表单会给出错误消息,会让用户感到乏力又要重复之前的工作。

34.Try Forgiving Inputs instead of being strict with data.

Being more forgiving in terms of user entered data, computers can move one step closer towards becoming a bit more humane. Forgiving inputs anticipates and understands a variety of data formats and thereby makes your UI more friendly. A perfect example of this is when we ask people for a phone number which can be entered in so many different ways – with brackets, extensions, dashes, area codes, and on. Have your code work a bit harder so that your users won’t have to.

34.需要用户输入的格式宽松严格限定格式

对用户输入的数据,尽量放宽限制,包括格式,大小写什么的。这样做可以更人性化一点,也使得界面更加友好。一个再恬当不过的例子就是让用户输入电话号码的时候,用户有很多种输入方式,带括号的,带破折号的,带空格的,带区号和不带区号的等等。如果你在代码中来处理这些格式的问题,代价也只是你一个人多写几行代码而以,却可以减少无数用户的工作量。

35.Try Urgency instead of timelessness.

Urgency is a persuasion tactic which can be applied in order to make people act now rather than later (or possibly never). It works because it often implies some degree of scarcity, as the thing which is available now might not be available tomorrow. It also works because it touches upon loss aversion in the same way – as we don’t like losing out on opportunities. Urgency might also be one of those strategies that some look down upon as a pushy and dirty way of getting people to act. Nevertheless it’s available as a strategy to use and as long as it’s honest it’s valid. Be careful of creating a false sense of urgency, since when your audience calls you on it, it will backfire.

35.让用户有一些紧急的意识,别让用户拖得太久

适当的紧迫感是个有效的战术可以让用户立即做出决定而不是等上个十天半个月。重要的是这种战术屡试不爽,因为它暗示了资源的紧缺或者活动的时间有限,今天可以买,但明天可能就无法这么低价了。另一方面,这一战术也让用户感到会错失一次大好的机会,再一次,应用了人们害怕失去的本性。当然,这种战术会被一些人嗤之以鼻,认为是不耿直的做法。不过,这只是种战术而以,并且在保持合法性的前提下应用也无伤大雅。所以请不要为了营销而在界面上制造紧迫的假象。

36.Try Scarcity instead of abundance.

When there is less of anything, we tend to value it more. Scarcity suggests there was once more of something, today there is less of it, and tomorrow it might shrink yet even further. Think of a wholesale store vs. a boutique one and then look at how their pricing often compares. Then think back to the wholesaler and notice one scarcity strategy that they apply nevertheless, in light of having a wider product offering. Some wholesalers or mega retailers will actually do limited products that are only available until they are bought out, without replenishing the supply. In software, we often forget about scarcity because more often than not, bits and bytes can be so easily duplicated and there is so much abundance with the help of copy-paste. Nevertheless, in the world of UI, scarcity can still be used to show limits or bottlenecks that relate to the real world. Think of the limits behind the number of tickets you can sell to a webinar, the number of clients you can service in a month, or the number physical products you might have before the next batch is produced. All these things can be shown to the user to evoke action while being more informed. Think supply and demand. Think less is more.

36.适当尝试饥饿营销

物以稀为贵。饥饿营销给出的信息就是东西不多,只剩几件,明天再来,可能没了。你去比较一下批发与限量版的东西他们的价格差距有多大就知道了。回过头来看,那些批发商或者大零售商,他们也使用饥饿营销,以获得更好的销量。但在软件行业,我们经常会忘记有饥饿营销这回事。因为数字产品是可以很容易拷贝复制的,不存在缺货的情况。其实,在界面设计中,也可以将其运用起来与现实中的资源紧缺进行联系。想想一次网上研讨会的门票,想想你一个月可以服务的人数限制,这些信息都可以告知用户是有限的。

37.Try Recognition instead of recall.

This is a classic principle of design tied strongly to psychology which suggests that it is easier to recognize something existing, as opposed to having to recall it purely from one’s own memory. Recognition relies on some kind of cues or hints which help us by touching our past experience. Recall requires us to probe the depths of our memory all on our own. This might be the reason why sometimes multiple choice questions on exams can be faster to complete than open ended ones. Consider giving users the ability to recognize items which they have been exposed to before, instead of expecting them to remember everything on their own.

37.让用户选择而不是重新填写

这一界面设计中的经典准则是有心理学依据的,相比要让某人回想想某样东西,从一堆东西中认出某样东西会更容易些。辨识出一样东西只需要我们稍微回忆一下,通过一些线索就可以完成。而回想则需要我们全面搜索自己的大脑。也许这也是为什么试卷上选择题会比简答题做得快的原因。所以试着在界面上展示一些用户之前涉及到的信息让他们进行选择,而不是让他们想半天然后自己填写。

38.Try Bigger Click Areas instead of tiny ones.

Links, forms and buttons can all be made easier to click on if their size is increased. According to Fitt’s Law, we need more time to click on something with a pointing device, the further away it is and/or smaller it is. For this very reason, do consider increasing your form fields, calls to action, and links. Alternatively, it’s also possible to keep the visual element looking as is, but instead only increasing its hotspot or clickable area. A popular example of this are text links on mobile devices or within navigation menus, that are stretched with padding.

38.使用更大的点击区域

像链接,表单的输入框还有按钮等,如果尺寸做得大一点则点击起来更方便容易些。根据费特定律,使用像鼠标这样的外设来点击需要一些时间,特别是元素比较小的情况下,时间会更多。鉴于此,最好还是把你的表单输入框,按钮等做大点。抑或者你可以保持原有的设计不变,只是把元素可点击区域(也就是热区)增大。这样的一个典型例子是手机设备上的文本链接和导航菜单,它们文字不一定很大但背景是拉伸的,在很宽范围内点击都有效。

39.Try Faster Load Times instead of making people wait.

Speed matters. Be it how quickly a screen loads initially, or how fast it responds to a user action can both affect whether people will wait or not. It has been suggested that each second longer affects drop off, bounce and conversion rates. Hence one tactic is to decrease the load times of our screens technically by optimizing code and images. Another tactic is to decrease the perception of load times by applying some psychology. Two tricks can be applied in order to make people feel like they aren’t waiting for so long. Showing progress bars which set expectations is one. Keeping users occupied while something is loading, is another (think walking to the conveyor belt a bit longer instead of standing beside it and tapping your foot).

39.优化加载的速度,别让用户等太久

速度很重要。页面加载速度和UI对操作的响应速度都直接关系到用户是否有耐心继续等下去。无疑地每多一秒种的等待都会失去一些用户或者项目机会。一个好的解决之道当然就是优化你的页面和图片。除此之外还可以运用心理学让这个等待时间显得不那么长。具体来说有两种技巧。一是显示进度条,二是展示其他相关或有趣的东西来吸引用户的注意力(就好比你沿着传送带走走总比傻站在原地盯着一个位置看要好得多吧)。

40.Try Keyboard Shortcuts instead of buttons only.

When you have a high use product, it’s always good to consider those advanced users who keep coming back and spend much time with your application. People will often seek ways which allow them to perform repetitive task quicker and keyboard shortcuts are one such way of providing this. Hot keys, once remembered, can speed up task performance over point and click graphical user interfaces dramatically. One example of this is the use of the J and K hot keys for next and previous which have been popularize by applications such as Gmail, Google Reader (now history), Twitter and Tumblr. Buttons aren’t bad, but they can be complemented with shortcuts for those fast fingers.

40.可以给用户提供一些快捷操作

当你的程序广为流传,应该考虑下高级用户的感受。人们总是试图为一些重复性的操作找到更快捷的方法,快捷键就应运而生了。相比在界面上点来点去,快捷键无疑大大提高工作效率。一个好的例子就是现今流行于各个主流程序中的J(后退)K(前进)快捷键组合,比如在Gmail,Twitter和Tumblr中。按钮固然好,但快捷键会锦上添花。